Commit 7b378a22 authored by Evgeny Kusmenko's avatar Evgeny Kusmenko
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Apache Tomcat
Copyright 1999-2018 The Apache Software Foundation
This product includes software developed at
The Apache Software Foundation (http://www.apache.org/).
This software contains code derived from netty-native
developed by the Netty project
(http://netty.io, https://github.com/netty/netty-tcnative/)
and from finagle-native developed at Twitter
(https://github.com/twitter/finagle).
The Windows Installer is built with the Nullsoft
Scriptable Install System (NSIS), which is
open source software. The original software and
related information is available at
http://nsis.sourceforge.net.
Java compilation software for JSP pages is provided by the Eclipse
JDT Core Batch Compiler component, which is open source software.
The original software and related information is available at
http://www.eclipse.org/jdt/core/.
For portions of the Tomcat JNI OpenSSL API and the OpenSSL JSSE integration
The org.apache.tomcat.jni and the org.apache.tomcat.net.openssl packages
are derivative work originating from the Netty project and the finagle-native
project developed at Twitter
* Copyright 2014 The Netty Project
* Copyright 2014 Twitter
The original XML Schemas for Java EE Deployment Descriptors:
- javaee_5.xsd
- javaee_web_services_1_2.xsd
- javaee_web_services_client_1_2.xsd
- javaee_6.xsd
- javaee_web_services_1_3.xsd
- javaee_web_services_client_1_3.xsd
- jsp_2_2.xsd
- web-app_3_0.xsd
- web-common_3_0.xsd
- web-fragment_3_0.xsd
- javaee_7.xsd
- javaee_web_services_1_4.xsd
- javaee_web_services_client_1_4.xsd
- jsp_2_3.xsd
- web-app_3_1.xsd
- web-common_3_1.xsd
- web-fragment_3_1.xsd
- javaee_8.xsd
- web-app_4_0.xsd
- web-common_4_0.xsd
- web-fragment_4_0.xsd
may be obtained from:
http://www.oracle.com/webfolder/technetwork/jsc/xml/ns/javaee/index.html
================================================================================
Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
contributor license agreements. See the NOTICE file distributed with
this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
(the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at
http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
limitations under the License.
================================================================================
Apache Tomcat Version 9.0.5
Release Notes
=========
CONTENTS:
=========
* Dependency Changes
* API Stability
* Bundled APIs
* Web application reloading and static fields in shared libraries
* Security manager URLs
* Symlinking static resources
* Viewing the Tomcat Change Log
* Cryptographic software notice
* When all else fails
===================
Dependency Changes:
===================
Tomcat 9.0 is designed to run on Java SE 8 and later.
==============
API Stability:
==============
The public interfaces for the following classes are fixed and will not be
changed at all during the remaining lifetime of the 9.x series:
- All classes in the javax namespace
The public interfaces for the following classes may be added to in order to
resolve bugs and/or add new features. No existing interface method will be
removed or changed although it may be deprecated.
- org.apache.catalina.* (excluding sub-packages)
Note: As Tomcat 9 matures, the above list will be added to. The list is not
considered complete at this time.
The remaining classes are considered part of the Tomcat internals and may change
without notice between point releases.
=============
Bundled APIs:
=============
A standard installation of Tomcat 9.0 makes all of the following APIs available
for use by web applications (by placing them in "lib"):
* annotations-api.jar (Annotations package)
* catalina.jar (Tomcat Catalina implementation)
* catalina-ant.jar (Tomcat Catalina Ant tasks)
* catalina-ha.jar (High availability package)
* catalina-storeconfig.jar (Generation of XML configuration from current state)
* catalina-tribes.jar (Group communication)
* ecj-4.6.3.jar (Eclipse JDT Java compiler)
* el-api.jar (EL 3.0 API)
* jasper.jar (Jasper 2 Compiler and Runtime)
* jasper-el.jar (Jasper 2 EL implementation)
* jsp-api.jar (JSP 2.3 API)
* servlet-api.jar (Servlet 4.0 API)
* tomcat-api.jar (Interfaces shared by Catalina and Jasper)
* tomcat-coyote.jar (Tomcat connectors and utility classes)
* tomcat-dbcp.jar (package renamed database connection pool based on Commons DBCP)
* tomcat-jdbc.jar (Tomcat's database connection pooling solution)
* tomcat-jni.jar (Interface to the native component of the APR/native connector)
* tomcat-util.jar (Various utilities)
* tomcat-websocket.jar (WebSocket 1.1 implementation)
* websocket-api.jar (WebSocket 1.1 API)
You can make additional APIs available to all of your web applications by
putting unpacked classes into a "classes" directory (not created by default),
or by placing them in JAR files in the "lib" directory.
To override the XML parser implementation or interfaces, use the appropriate
feature for your JVM. For Java <= 8 use the endorsed standards override
feature. The default configuration defines JARs located in "endorsed" as endorsed.
For Java 9+ use the upgradeable modules feature.
================================================================
Web application reloading and static fields in shared libraries:
================================================================
Some shared libraries (many are part of the JDK) keep references to objects
instantiated by the web application. To avoid class loading related problems
(ClassCastExceptions, messages indicating that the classloader
is stopped, etc.), the shared libraries state should be reinitialized.
Something which might help is to avoid putting classes which would be
referenced by a shared static field in the web application classloader,
and putting them in the shared classloader instead (JARs should be put in the
"lib" folder, and classes should be put in the "classes" folder).
======================
Security manager URLs:
======================
In order to grant security permissions to JARs located inside the
web application repository, use URLs of of the following format
in your policy file:
file:${catalina.base}/webapps/examples/WEB-INF/lib/driver.jar
============================
Symlinking static resources:
============================
By default, Unix symlinks will not work when used in a web application to link
resources located outside the web application root directory.
This behavior is optional, and the "allowLinking" flag may be used to disable
the check.
==============================
Viewing the Tomcat Change Log:
==============================
The full change log is available from http://tomcat.apache.org and is also
included in the documentation web application.
=============================
Cryptographic software notice
=============================
This distribution includes cryptographic software. The country in
which you currently reside may have restrictions on the import,
possession, use, and/or re-export to another country, of
encryption software. BEFORE using any encryption software, please
check your country's laws, regulations and policies concerning the
import, possession, or use, and re-export of encryption software, to
see if this is permitted. See <http://www.wassenaar.org/> for more
information.
The U.S. Government Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and
Security (BIS), has classified this software as Export Commodity
Control Number (ECCN) 5D002.C.1, which includes information security
software using or performing cryptographic functions with asymmetric
algorithms. The form and manner of this Apache Software Foundation
distribution makes it eligible for export under the License Exception
ENC Technology Software Unrestricted (TSU) exception (see the BIS
Export Administration Regulations, Section 740.13) for both object
code and source code.
The following provides more details on the included cryptographic
software:
- Tomcat includes code designed to work with JSSE
- Tomcat includes code designed to work with OpenSSL
====================
When all else fails:
====================
See the FAQ
http://tomcat.apache.org/faq/
================================================================================
Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
contributor license agreements. See the NOTICE file distributed with
this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
(the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at
http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
limitations under the License.
================================================================================
===================================================
Running The Apache Tomcat 9.0 Servlet/JSP Container
===================================================
Apache Tomcat 9.0 requires a Java Standard Edition Runtime
Environment (JRE) version 8 or later.
=============================
Running With JRE 8 Or Later
=============================
(1) Download and Install a Java SE Runtime Environment (JRE)
(1.1) Download a Java SE Runtime Environment (JRE),
release version 8 or later, from
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/downloads/index.html
(1.2) Install the JRE according to the instructions included with the
release.
You may also use a full Java Development Kit (JDK) rather than just
a JRE.
(2) Download and Install Apache Tomcat
(2.1) Download a binary distribution of Tomcat from:
http://tomcat.apache.org/
(2.2) Unpack the binary distribution so that it resides in its own
directory (conventionally named "apache-tomcat-[version]").
For the purposes of the remainder of this document, the name
"CATALINA_HOME" is used to refer to the full pathname of that
directory.
NOTE: As an alternative to downloading a binary distribution, you can
create your own from the Tomcat source code, as described in
"BUILDING.txt". You can either
a) Do the full "release" build and find the created distribution in the
"output/release" directory and then proceed with unpacking as above, or
b) Do a simple build and use the "output/build" directory as
"CATALINA_HOME". Be warned that there are some differences between the
contents of the "output/build" directory and a full "release"
distribution.
(3) Configure Environment Variables
Tomcat is a Java application and does not use environment variables directly.
Environment variables are used by the Tomcat startup scripts. The scripts use
the environment variables to prepare the command that starts Tomcat.
(3.1) Set CATALINA_HOME (required) and CATALINA_BASE (optional)
The CATALINA_HOME environment variable should be set to the location of the
root directory of the "binary" distribution of Tomcat.
The Tomcat startup scripts have some logic to set this variable
automatically if it is absent, based on the location of the startup script
in *nix and on the current directory in Windows. That logic might not work
in all circumstances, so setting the variable explicitly is recommended.
The CATALINA_BASE environment variable specifies location of the root
directory of the "active configuration" of Tomcat. It is optional. It
defaults to be equal to CATALINA_HOME.
Using distinct values for the CATALINA_HOME and CATALINA_BASE variables is
recommended to simplify further upgrades and maintenance. It is documented
in the "Multiple Tomcat Instances" section below.
(3.2) Set JRE_HOME or JAVA_HOME (required)
These variables are used to specify location of a Java Runtime
Environment or of a Java Development Kit that is used to start Tomcat.
The JRE_HOME variable is used to specify location of a JRE. The JAVA_HOME
variable is used to specify location of a JDK.
Using JAVA_HOME provides access to certain additional startup options that
are not allowed when JRE_HOME is used.
If both JRE_HOME and JAVA_HOME are specified, JRE_HOME is used.
The recommended place to specify these variables is a "setenv" script. See
below.
(3.3) Other variables (optional)
Other environment variables exist, besides the four described above.
See the comments at the top of catalina.bat or catalina.sh scripts for
the list and a description of each of them.
One frequently used variable is CATALINA_OPTS. It allows specification of
additional options for the java command that starts Tomcat.
See the Java documentation for the options that affect the Java Runtime
Environment.
See the "System Properties" page in the Tomcat Configuration Reference for
the system properties that are specific to Tomcat.
A similar variable is JAVA_OPTS. It is used less frequently. It allows
specification of options that are used both to start and to stop Tomcat as well
as for other commands.
Note: Do not use JAVA_OPTS to specify memory limits. You do not need much
memory for a small process that is used to stop Tomcat. Those settings
belong to CATALINA_OPTS.
Another frequently used variable is CATALINA_PID (on *nix only). It
specifies the location of the file where process id of the forked Tomcat
java process will be written. This setting is optional. It will enable the
following features:
* better protection against duplicate start attempts and
* allows forceful termination of Tomcat process when it does not react to
the standard shutdown command.
(3.4) Using the "setenv" script (optional, recommended)
Apart from CATALINA_HOME and CATALINA_BASE, all environment variables can
be specified in the "setenv" script. The script is placed either into
CATALINA_BASE/bin or into CATALINA_HOME/bin directory and is named
setenv.bat (on Windows) or setenv.sh (on *nix). The file has to be
readable.
By default the setenv script file is absent. If the script file is present
both in CATALINA_BASE and in CATALINA_HOME, the one in CATALINA_BASE is
preferred.
For example, to configure the JRE_HOME and CATALINA_PID variables you can
create the following script file:
On Windows, %CATALINA_BASE%\bin\setenv.bat:
set "JRE_HOME=%ProgramFiles%\Java\jre8"
exit /b 0
On *nix, $CATALINA_BASE/bin/setenv.sh:
JRE_HOME=/usr/java/latest
CATALINA_PID="$CATALINA_BASE/tomcat.pid"
The CATALINA_HOME and CATALINA_BASE variables cannot be configured in the
setenv script, because they are used to locate that file.
All the environment variables described here and the "setenv" script are
used only if you use the standard scripts to launch Tomcat. For example, if
you have installed Tomcat as a service on Windows, the service wrapper
launches Java directly and does not use the script files.
(4) Start Up Tomcat
(4.1) Tomcat can be started by executing one of the following commands:
On Windows:
%CATALINA_HOME%\bin\startup.bat
or
%CATALINA_HOME%\bin\catalina.bat start
On *nix:
$CATALINA_HOME/bin/startup.sh
or
$CATALINA_HOME/bin/catalina.sh start
(4.2) After startup, the default web applications included with Tomcat will be
available by visiting:
http://localhost:8080/
(4.3) Further information about configuring and running Tomcat can be found in
the documentation included here, as well as on the Tomcat web site:
http://tomcat.apache.org/
(5) Shut Down Tomcat
(5.1) Tomcat can be shut down by executing one of the following commands:
On Windows:
%CATALINA_HOME%\bin\shutdown.bat
or
%CATALINA_HOME%\bin\catalina.bat stop
On *nix:
$CATALINA_HOME/bin/shutdown.sh
or
$CATALINA_HOME/bin/catalina.sh stop
==================================================
Advanced Configuration - Multiple Tomcat Instances
==================================================
In many circumstances, it is desirable to have a single copy of a Tomcat
binary distribution shared among multiple users on the same server. To make
this possible, you can set the CATALINA_BASE environment variable to the
directory that contains the files for your 'personal' Tomcat instance.
When running with a separate CATALINA_HOME and CATALINA_BASE, the files
and directories are split as following:
In CATALINA_BASE:
* bin - Only the following files:
* setenv.sh (*nix) or setenv.bat (Windows),
* tomcat-juli.jar
The setenv scripts were described above. The tomcat-juli library
is documented in the Logging chapter in the User Guide.
* conf - Server configuration files (including server.xml)
* lib - Libraries and classes, as explained below
* logs - Log and output files
* webapps - Automatically loaded web applications
* work - Temporary working directories for web applications
* temp - Directory used by the JVM for temporary files (java.io.tmpdir)
In CATALINA_HOME:
* bin - Startup and shutdown scripts
The following files will be used only if they are absent in
CATALINA_BASE/bin:
setenv.sh (*nix), setenv.bat (Windows), tomcat-juli.jar
* lib - Libraries and classes, as explained below
* endorsed - Libraries that override standard "Endorsed Standards"
libraries provided by JRE. See Classloading documentation
in the User Guide for details.
This is only supported for Java <= 8.
By default this "endorsed" directory is absent.
In the default configuration the JAR libraries and classes both in
CATALINA_BASE/lib and in CATALINA_HOME/lib will be added to the common
classpath, but the ones in CATALINA_BASE will be added first and thus will
be searched first.
The idea is that you may leave the standard Tomcat libraries in
CATALINA_HOME/lib and add other ones such as database drivers into
CATALINA_BASE/lib.
In general it is advised to never share libraries between web applications,
but put them into WEB-INF/lib directories inside the applications. See
Classloading documentation in the User Guide for details.
It might be useful to note that the values of CATALINA_HOME and
CATALINA_BASE can be referenced in the XML configuration files processed
by Tomcat as ${catalina.home} and ${catalina.base} respectively.
For example, the standard manager web application can be kept in
CATALINA_HOME/webapps/manager and loaded into CATALINA_BASE by using
the following trick:
* Copy the CATALINA_HOME/webapps/manager/META-INF/context.xml
file as CATALINA_BASE/conf/Catalina/localhost/manager.xml
* Add docBase attribute as shown below.
The file will look like the following:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<Context docBase="${catalina.home}/webapps/manager"
antiResourceLocking="false" privileged="true" >
<Valve className="org.apache.catalina.valves.RemoteAddrValve"
allow="127\.0\.0\.1" />
</Context>
See Deployer chapter in User Guide and Context and Host chapters in the
Configuration Reference for more information on contexts and web
application deployment.
================
Troubleshooting
================
There are only really 2 things likely to go wrong during the stand-alone
Tomcat install:
(1) The most common hiccup is when another web server (or any process for that
matter) has laid claim to port 8080. This is the default HTTP port that
Tomcat attempts to bind to at startup. To change this, open the file:
$CATALINA_HOME/conf/server.xml
and search for '8080'. Change it to a port that isn't in use, and is
greater than 1024, as ports less than or equal to 1024 require superuser
access to bind under UNIX.
Restart Tomcat and you're in business. Be sure that you replace the "8080"
in the URL you're using to access Tomcat. For example, if you change the
port to 1977, you would request the URL http://localhost:1977/ in your
browser.
(2) The 'localhost' machine isn't found. This could happen if you're behind a
proxy. If that's the case, make sure the proxy configuration for your
browser knows that you shouldn't be going through the proxy to access the
"localhost".
In Firefox, this is under Tools/Preferences -> Advanced/Network ->
Connection -> Settings..., and in Internet Explorer it is Tools ->
Internet Options -> Connections -> LAN Settings.
====================
Optional Components
====================
The following optional components may be included with the Apache Tomcat binary
distribution. If they are not included, you can install them separately.
1. Apache Tomcat Native library
2. Apache Commons Daemon service launcher
Both of them are implemented in C language and as such have to be compiled
into binary code. The binary code will be specific for a platform and CPU
architecture and it must match the Java Runtime Environment executables
that will be used to launch Tomcat.
The Windows-specific binary distributions of Apache Tomcat include binary
files for these components. On other platforms you would have to look for
binary versions elsewhere or compile them yourself.
If you are new to Tomcat, do not bother with these components to start with.
If you do use them, do not forget to read their documentation.
Apache Tomcat Native library
-----------------------------
It is a library that allows to use the "Apr" variant of HTTP and AJP
protocol connectors in Apache Tomcat. It is built around OpenSSL and Apache
Portable Runtime (APR) libraries. Those are the same libraries as used by
Apache HTTPD Server project.
This feature was especially important in the old days when Java performance
was poor. It is less important nowadays, but it is still used and respected
by many. See Tomcat documentation for more details.
For further reading:
- Apache Tomcat documentation
* Documentation for APR/Native library in the Tomcat User's Guide
http://tomcat.apache.org/tomcat-9.0-doc/apr.html
* Documentation for the HTTP and AJP protocol connectors in the Tomcat
Configuration Reference
http://tomcat.apache.org/tomcat-9.0-doc/config/http.html
http://tomcat.apache.org/tomcat-9.0-doc/config/ajp.html
- Apache Tomcat Native project home